In this study, we demonstrate that mibolerone, a synthetic androgen ligand, up-regulates ER-beta mRNA and protein levels in ER-positive breast cancer cells. Transient transfection experiments, using a vector containing the human ER-beta promoter region, show that mibolerone increases basal ER-beta promoter activity. Site-directed mutagenesis and deletion analysis reveal that an androgen response element (ARE), TGTTCT motif located at positions -383 and -377, is critical for mibolerone-induced ER-beta up-regulation in breast cancer cells. This occurs through an increased recruitment of AR to the ARE site within the ER-beta promoter region, along with an enhanced occupancy of RNA polymerase II. Finally, silencing of ER-beta gene expression by RNA interference is able to partially reverse the effects of mibolerone on cell proliferation, p21 and cyclin D1 expression.
Some bodybuilders and athletes use trenbolone for its muscle-building and otherwise performance-enhancing effects. [ citation needed ] Such use is illegal in the United States and many other countries. The DEA classifies trenbolone as a Schedule III controlled substance under the Controlled Substances Act .  Trenbolone is classified as a Schedule 4 drug in Canada  and a class C drug with no penalty for personal use or possession in the United Kingdom .  Use or possession of steroids without a prescription is a crime in Australia .  The infamous "duchess" cocktail administered to Russian athletes at the Sochi Winter Olympics consisted of oxandrolone , metenolone , and trenbolone.