The Tartrazine group revealed a significant decrease in the concentration of brain neurotransmitters as well as a sharp decline in the level of antioxidants in their brains. These include super oxide dismutase, catalase and reduced glutathione. There were also numerous apoptotic cells in the brain cortex compared with the other groups that received royal jelly, water or cod liver oil. Apoptotic cells are cells that are 'committing suicide' or dying. Higher levels of these cells indicated that the Yellow # 4 was likely causing the cells to self destruct.