In 2007 guidelines, the American College of Physicians and the American Pain Society included spinal manipulation as one of several treatment options for practitioners to consider when low-back pain does not improve with self-care. More recently, a 2010 Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) report noted that complementary health therapies, including spinal manipulation, offer additional options to conventional treatments, which often have limited benefit in managing back and neck pain. The AHRQ analysis also found that spinal manipulation was more effective than placebo and as effective as medication in reducing low-back pain intensity. However, the researchers noted inconsistent results when they compared spinal manipulation with massage or physical therapy to reduce low-back pain intensity or disability.
The prognosis for pancreatitis depends on many different factors, such as the underlying condition causing pancreatitis, the severity of the pancreatitis, and the patient's age and underlying medical problems. Patients with pancreatitis can experience everything from a brief self-limited illness with a full recovery to severe course of illness that can lead to life-threatening complications and death. If an individual has repeated episodes of acute pancreatitis, they may develop chronic pancreatitis, a lifelong condition that can lead to a decreased quality of life.
One exception in this line of research is the finding that for highly creative individuals, a moderate noise level may lead to higher creative performance relative to both low and high noise levels (Toplyn and Maguire 1991 ). Toplyn and Maguire had participants complete a number of creativity tasks and used their performance on one such task (the RAT) to assess their baseline creativity level. They found that highly creative individuals (defined as those who scored high on the RAT) exhibited greater creativity on other tasks when presented with a moderate level of white noise than when the noise level was either high or low. Toplyn and Maguire speculate that arousal may underlie this effect. For less creative individuals, on the other hand, no significant difference was observed among low, moderate, and high levels of noise.