Low men

The etiology of ICP is multifactorial, including genetic, hormonal, and exogenous factors. ICP is due to abnormal biliary transport resulting in saturation of the hepatic transport system. Recurrent familial intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy has been described as a heritable defect in the multidrug resistance 3 ( MDR3 ) gene, which encodes for a canalicular phospholipid translocator involved in bile duct secretion of phospholipids. One study demonstrated that the heterozygote genotype for the MDR3 gene predisposes women to developing ICP, but the expression of the disease is influenced by female sex hormone levels and metabolites. [ 29 ] Mutations in the MDR3 gene may account for up to 15% of cases of ICP.

Sixty participants (82%) in the low-fat group and 59 (79%) in the low-carbohydrate group completed the intervention. At 12 months, participants on the low-carbohydrate diet had greater decreases in weight (mean difference in change, − kg [95% CI, − to − kg]; P  = ), fat mass (mean difference in change, −% [CI, −% to −%]; P  = ), ratio of total–high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (mean difference in change, − [CI, − to −]; P  = ), and triglyceride level (mean difference in change, − mmol/L [− mg/dL] [CI, − to − mmol/L {− to − mg/dL}]; P  = ) and greater increases in HDL cholesterol level (mean difference in change, mmol/L [ mg/dL] [CI, to mmol/L { to mg/dL}]; P  < ) than those on the low-fat diet.

Low men

low men

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