In 2003, Alan Murray, who at the time was Washington bureau chief for CNBC and a co-host of the television program Capital Report, declared the debate over supply-side economics to have ended "with a whimper" after extensive modeling performed by the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) predicted that the revenue generating effects of the specific tax cuts examined would be, in his words, "relatively small."  Murray also suggested that Dan Crippen may have lost his chance at reappointment as head of the CBO over the dynamic scoring issue.
This addictive nature of this substance is reinforced by its abilities in creating intensely pleasurable feelings. Heroin accomplishes this by binding to opioid receptors in the body. Once the chemical interaction has taken place, the affected nerve cells are prompted to release a neurotransmitter called dopamine . Dopamine is a special molecule--and important in mediating feelings of pleasure that are rewarding to the user. It's these sensations of reward that can kickstart and later reinforce a growing addiction, as the user continually seeks to repeat the behavior - in this case, heroin use - that lead to them in the first place.
The Tartrazine group revealed a significant decrease in the concentration of brain neurotransmitters as well as a sharp decline in the level of antioxidants in their brains. These include super oxide dismutase, catalase and reduced glutathione. There were also numerous apoptotic cells in the brain cortex compared with the other groups that received royal jelly, water or cod liver oil. Apoptotic cells are cells that are 'committing suicide' or dying. Higher levels of these cells indicated that the Yellow # 4 was likely causing the cells to self destruct.