One more thing – know the whole study! If rats were fed a 5% degraded carrageenan solution, I’m not quite sure if the study can be relevant to humans. Firstly, it is nearly impossible to consume the same amount of UNDEGRADED carrageenan in similar amounts relative to our body weight. Most dairy products will contain about % to % carrageenan. That is 1 to 2 grams for every 1,000g of product. And considering most only drink 1 cup (250g) a day, that amount is further reduced. So remember about thresholds again; below a certain amount, something is healthy, higher than the threshold, it is not. Another factor is that the animals were consuming DEGRADED carrageenan. I am pointing out that when it is being digested in their stomachs, it undergoes FURTHER processing in the animal’s digestive system. This case is not at all similar to the type we consume in human foods. Yes, one can argue that it becomes degraded in our stomach, but to what extent? Does it get degraded enough to resemble the same carrageenan they used in the rat study?